Internal Medicine Specialist

Program Pendidikan Dokter Spesialis FKUB
Written on 6 December 2016 , by ipdppds , in category Announcements

Typhoid fever remains a global health problem for the people of the world, especially in developing countries. The amount of exact figures on cases of typhoid fever in the world is still very difficult to determine because the disease is known to have clinical symptoms with a very broad spectrum. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003 estimated that there were approximately 17 million cases of typhoid fever worldwide with an incidence of 600,000 cases of deaths each year (WHO, 2003). Estimates of the incidence rate of 150 / 100,000 / year in South America and 900 / 100,000 / year in Asia. The incidence of typhoid fever cases in Indonesia is still very high, estimated at 350-810 per 100,000 with a mortality rate of 0.6 to 5% as a result of delay received treatment.
Despite continuously decreasing the number of cases of typhoid fever in Indonesia is still considered to be high and volatile, it appears from the data in 2000 there were 275 639 cases with incidence rate of 12.97 per 10,000 population and declining steadily until in 2002 only recorded 136 088 cases with incidence rates 6 , 4 per 10,000 inhabitants, but in 2003 again increased the number of cases reached 255 817 cases with incidence rate of 12 per 10,000 population and ultimately decreased again in 2004 to 134 065 cases were recorded with the incidence rate of 6.19 per 10,000 population. These data indicate a high incidence of typhoid fever in Indonesia and is still the importance of accurate diagnostic methods for the diagnosis and establish the appropriate medications (RI Health Department, 2005). Data from the Health Research (RISKESDAS) Central Java province that clinical typhoid can be detected with a prevalence of 1.6% and are scattered throughout the county or city with a range of 0.2 to 3.5%. The highest prevalence was reported from the Wonosobo district, Pemalang and Cilacap ie more than 3%. Diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by seeing clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Typhoid fever raises the following symptoms: fever, malaise, headache, hepatosplenomegaly, rash on the chest, abdominal pain, typhoid tongue, gastrointestinal disturbances, bradycardia and impaired consciousness.
Laboratory tests are usually done to aid in the diagnosis of typhoid fever is the examination of peripheral blood complete with a picture that is often found in the form of leukopenia, but can also occur leukocyte count normal or leukocytosis, on examination leukocyte count may occur aneosinofilia and lymphopenia. Keusch (1999) suggests that endotoxin lipopolysaccharide on S.typhi may cause leukopenia, so that the laboratory results of typhoid fever include leukopenia and neutropenia, but for severe leukopenia (<2000 cells per microliter) are rare. Holland and Gallin (2008) also found that infection occurs in typhoid fever can cause a decrease in the production of neutrophils so that the laboratory results can be found neutropenia. The number of leukocytes in typhoid fever can also be normal caused by the pathogenesis of typhoid fever itself. Salmonella penetrating the mucosal lining of the intestine, after it S.typhi will difagositosis, these bacteria will actually survive in phagocytic cells which can provide protection for the bacteria to spread throughout the body and are protected from antibodies and antimicrobial agents so that no body’s response to increase the number of leukocytes. Moreover, it can also be found mild anemia, thrombocytopenia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
To improve the quality of service and knowledge of Typhoid fever worldwide Malang East Java particular and generally, it is therefore organized this event which is expected to be useful as possible.

Announcement Thypoid